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2019.01.26

下面雕塑厂家跟大家一起论述下中西方人物雕塑的差异:
1、秦汉时期中西方人物雕塑差异,直接原因当然是中西审美观的不同。中国的审美观强调的是一种集体之美。不论秦始皇兵马俑还是汉俑,展现的都是强大阵列的威严、庄重之美。这种美是在众多的人俑的排列、组合、相互联系当中显现出来的。而古希腊罗马的雕塑强调的是个人所展示出来的美。例如创作于前19年的罗马皇帝奥古斯都的雕像:目光炯炯,好像看到了光明的前景;右手举起,仿佛指挥着自己的军队;左手持矛,似乎时刻准备着武力征服;胜利之神在他脚下,给予他无尽的力量。即使是群体像,希腊和罗马人也不希望在整体中展现美。再如帕加马祭坛上表现宙斯和雅典娜与举人战斗的浮雕,一共有几十个人物,但作者主要想表现的是宙斯和雅典娜,所以刻意地表现这两个主人公,使之在整个浮雕中占支配地位。这种情况在秦始皇兵马俑和汉俑中是找不到的。
人物雕塑
2、另外,西方的审美观强调直白、明晰、奔放;而中国则强调委婉、内敛、保守。比如在西方的雕塑中,男子和女子多为半裸或全裸的姿态,给人一种强大的视觉冲击力。这是因为希腊罗马人欣赏人类魁梧、圆润的体格,“希腊大师们则把这种不松弛、没有多余脂肪的造型赋予他们的雕像。”但是,这在中国的雕塑中是绝对找不到的。
3、在中西审美观的不同,这个造成秦汉时期中西方人物雕塑差异直接原因的背后,有着更深层次的原因——那,就是中西文化的差异。这种文化差异最主要的,正如钱穆先生所说:“埃及、巴比伦、印度的文化,比较上皆在一个小地面上产生。独有中国文化,产生在特别大的地面上。”具体来说,中国的文化是在东亚这片广大的大陆上产生的,是一种典型的大陆型文化。其显著的特点就是产生了农耕文明。由于从事农业生产要把农民牢固的束缚在土地上,并要依靠集体的力量才能发展并战胜自然灾害,所以产生了以崇尚内敛、信仰集体力量为核心的审美观。这种文化意蕴在秦始皇兵马俑和汉俑等雕塑作品中淋漓尽致地表现出来了。而西方文化则是在尼罗河三角洲、巴尔干半岛南部和亚平宁半岛这些分布在沿地中海狭小的地域上产生的,是一种典型的海洋文化。这种文化和我们以农耕为核心的大陆型文化不同,它强调冒险和征服,极具扩张性。因此,特别推重个人的力量、英雄主义的行为和侵略性的气质。所以,这种文化反映在雕塑艺术之中就会特别突出个人的英雄气质和外向、奔放的审美情趣。

The following sculpture manufacturers discuss with you the differences between Chinese and Western figure sculptures:

1. The direct reason for the difference between Chinese and Western sculptures in Qin and Han Dynasties is, of course, the difference between Chinese and Western aesthetics. Chinese aesthetics emphasizes the collective beauty. Whether the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang or the Terra Cotta Warriors of Han Dynasty, they all show the majesty and solemn beauty of a powerful array. This kind of beauty is shown in the arrangement, combination and interconnection of numerous terracotta figures. The ancient Greek and Roman sculptures emphasize the beauty displayed by individuals. For example, the statue of Augustus, the Roman emperor, created in the first 19 years, looks bright as if he sees a bright future; raises his right hand as if he is commanding his army; holds a spear in his left hand as if he is always ready to conquer by force; and the God of victory gives him endless strength under his feet. Even group images, Greeks and Romans do not want to show beauty in the whole. Another example is the relief of Zeus and Athena fighting against the whole people on the altar of Pagama. There are dozens of characters, but the author mainly wants to show Zeus and Athena, so he deliberately expresses the two protagonists, making them dominant in the relief. This situation can not be found in the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang and the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Han Dynasty.

Figure sculpture

2. In addition, western aesthetics emphasizes straightforwardness, clarity and boldness, while China emphasizes euphemism, restraint and conservatism. For example, in Western sculptures, men and women are mostly half-naked or completely naked, giving a strong visual impact. This is because the Greeks and Romans appreciated the tall, round body of human beings. "The Greek masters endowed their statues with this kind of non-flabby, no excess fat shape." However, this is absolutely impossible to find in Chinese sculptures.

3. There is a deeper reason behind the difference between Chinese and Western aesthetics, which is the direct cause of the difference between Chinese and Western sculptures in Qin and Han Dynasties. That is the difference between Chinese and Western cultures. This cultural difference is the most important, as Mr. Qian Mu said: "Egyptian, Babylonian and Indian cultures are comparatively produced on a small ground. Unique Chinese culture, produced on a particularly large ground. Specifically, Chinese culture is a typical continental culture, which is produced on the vast continent of East Asia. Its remarkable feature is the emergence of farming civilization. Since agricultural production requires that farmers be firmly bound to the land and rely on collective strength to develop and overcome natural disasters, an aesthetic concept centered on advocating restraint and belief in collective strength emerges. This cultural implication is vividly expressed in the sculptures of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang and the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Han Dynasty. Western culture is a typical marine culture, which is produced in the Nile Delta, southern Balkan Peninsula and Apennin Peninsula, which are distributed in a narrow area along the Mediterranean Sea. This culture is different from our continental culture with farming as its core. It emphasizes adventure and conquest and is very expansive. Therefore, we attach great importance to personal strength, heroic behavior and aggressive temperament. Therefore, this kind of culture reflected in the sculpture art will highlight the individual heroic temperament and outgoing, unrestrained aesthetic taste.

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